Extracts & Concentrates

Cannabis Education: Extracts & Concentrates

The answer to this question varies depending on the state you are located in because each state can define extracts and concentrates differently. Some examples of products that are considered extracts in the state of Oregon are: Butane Hash Oil (BHO), Propane Hash Oil (PHO), CO2 Oil, Live Resin, Sauce and Diamonds. Read on for more information on each of these types of extractions. Some examples of products that are considered concentrates in the state of Oregon are: Tinctures, Kief, Hash, most Rick Simpson Oil, and tinctures. Check out our menu page to see all extracts and concentrates we carry.

See the exact Oregon definitions here:

In the state of Oregon a cannabinoid extract is defined as: “a substance obtained by separating cannabinoids from marijuana by:

(a) A chemical extraction process using a hydrocarbon-based solvent, such as butane, hexane or propane;

(b) A chemical extraction process using the hydrocarbon-based solvent carbon dioxide, if the process uses high heat or pressure”

In the State of Oregon a cannabinoid concentrate is defined as: “a substance obtained by separating cannabinoids from marijuana by:

(a) A mechanical extraction process;

(b) A chemical extraction process using a non hydrocarbon-based or other solvent, such as water, vegetable glycerin, vegetable oils, animal fats, isopropyl alcohol or ethanol; or

(c) A chemical extraction process using the hydrocarbon-based solvent carbon dioxide, provided that the process does not involve the use of high heat or pressure”

A solvent is essentially any chemical liquid that dissolves a product into a solution. Oregon extracts that would be considered solvent based include all forms of BHO, PHO, CO2 and RSO. The solvents used in these cannabis extractions and concentrates respectively are Butane, Propane, CO2 and Ethanol alcohol. The solvents are purged off at the end of the process. In the state of Oregon, it is required that all extracts and concentrates sold in the OLCC recreational and medical market are tested to ensure residual solvents are absent or below certain safety levels. .

A solventless concentrate most often uses mechanical methods involving shaking, seperating, pressing. Solventless methods can also employ ice, water and dry ice. The result is kief, hash and rosin.

A solvent-free extract is otherwise called distillate. In the process of making distillate, all residual solvents, terpenes and chlorophyll are removed from the extract leaving only cannabinoids.

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Butane Hash Oil (BHO) is a cannabis extract that is made by using butane as a solvent to extract the cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. The types of BHO on the market include: shatter, snap & pull, crumble, budder, sap, live resin, sauce and diamonds. Wow, that’s a lot of different kinds of BHO! Let’s go through some of the differences.

Shatter: Shatter is called shatter, because at room temperature it will literally shatter. Shatter is know to be the hardest type of BHO: it should be very stable and easy to work with.


A piece of cannabis oil concentrate aka shatter isolated against white background


Snap & Pull: Snap & Pull is another name based on consistency. At room temperature it should be easy to pull apart and snap off. A bit more waxy than Shatter.

Crumble: Crumble again is a reference to consistency. Crumble is made by a combination of whipping the BHO and purging butane at a low temperature for an average of 10-15 hours. Crumble, is well… crumbly so it is easy to place small pieces of it on your bowl or in vape pen, but it is not going to be easy to manipulate with your hands.

Sap: Named for its likeness to the sap of a tree: this form of BHO is sticky and runny.

Live Resin: Live resin is made from the raw cannabis plant, as opposed to most other forms of BHO which are made from dry plant material. This process preserves the terpenes and creates a stronger flavor profile for the end product.

Sauce: Sauce is produced by lengthening the purging time to literally weeks in a cool, dark place. Due to the purging process, the terpenes are preserved and the THC content is often more potent. The consistency of sauce is well… saucy.

Diamonds: Diamonds take the most amount of time and work to make. Like the sauce, they must purge in a cool, dark place for literally weeks to months. Diamonds are known to be very potent. They do literally look like cannabinoid diamonds when they are finished.

Oil: This form of BHO is usually found in a cartridge, as it is literally in an oil format.

There is a common misconception that consuming cannabis oil that was made using hydrocarbon solvents such as Butane could be dangerous for your health. However, if you purchase BHO from an Oregon State OLCC licensed dispensary, all BHO products are state mandated to go through testing for residual solvents and pesticides. At Urban Farmacy, all products on our shelves have passed testing. On the flip side, consuming BHO purchased outside the licensed market, could expose you to residual solvents and pesticides.
Propane Hash Oil (PHO) is a cannabis extract made by using the hydrocarbon solvent Propane to extract cannabinoids and terpenes from the cannabis plant. PHO is very similar to BHO, however the texture can be a bit more crumbly or spongy than BHO.
CO2 oil is an extract made using high pressure and supercritical CO2 as the solvent. Co2 extractions have been around since the 1980’s being used in essential oils, perfumes and decaffeination of tea and coffee. Co2 cannabis extracts are most commonly sold in prefilled vaporizer cartridges that attach to a battery. Many CO2 oils are full spectrum and still contain some of the original terpenes. Some companies also add terpenes after extraction to enhance the terpene profile. For specific questions about each brand, ask your Urban Farmacy budtender.
The term cannabis distillate refers to a cannabis extraction process that uses heat to vaporize cannabinoids. This vapour is then collected in the distillation cooling system. This removes everything from the cannabinoids, including all residual solvents, plant matter and terpenes. Distillate is also known as “clear” because the end product is often times clear and is literally free of other contaminants. The potential benefits of distillate include: it is solvent free and cannabinoid concentration is extremely high often testing above 90%. The drawback of distillate is that it completely strips the terpenes from the extract, removing access to the entourage effect. Many companies add cannabis derived and non-cannabis derived terpenes back in at the end with varying results.
Rick Simpson Oil is considered a concentrate in Oregon. Rick Simpson oil (RSO) is named after the man Rick Simpson. Rick Simpson made this form of cannabis concentrate famous by sharing his story about using cannabis oil on his skin cancer. RSO is made by soaking cannabis plant material in alcohol for a period of time. Then the alcohol is purged off and voila: you have a super concentrated cannabis oil known as RSO. To learn more about RSO visit our blog and see the links below.

Kief refers to the tiny resin glands covering the cannabis flower. Kief contains concentrated cannabinoids and terpenes. Kief is considered a concentrate and can be collected yourself using screens or a three chamber herb grinder. Keif is considered a solventless concentrate: this means no other foreign substances are introduced to the cannabis to extract the cannabinoids.

Hash is a type of cannabis concentrate that is made by separating the trichomes from the cannabis flowers. There are several different types of hash, the most commonly found in Oregon dispensaries is bubble hash. Hash most commonly uses dry ice, or ice water as the medium to extract the cannabis trichomes.

Rosin is an extraction process that utilizes a combination of heat and pressure to squeeze resinous sap from the initial cannabis material. Kief and hash can be used to create a full-melt hash oil or flower is used to create a resin. This is a popular cannabis extract because its flavor and potency rival BHO while being a solventless extraction.


Scientific Research and Technical Information about Concentrates and Extracts:

Hash Info:

How to make Rick Simpson Oil: